Achievements of the Bakshi Regime from 1953-1964
1. Education from kindergarten to the University standard was made free. The number of school-going children went up from 64,000 to 2,34,000. The number of primary and basic schools rose from 1,239 to 4,078, of high schools from 72 to 246, of arts and science colleges from 7 to 14, of industrial training institutes from two to nine and of professional colleges from one to eight. The number of women's educational institutions rose from 181 to 653 and enrolment from 14,488 to 63, 306. The number of post-graduate departments went up to 14. The budget of the Education Department rose from Rs. 83.49 to Rs. 327.38 lakhs and of the Jammu and Kashmir University from Rs. 2.1 lakhs to Rs. 27.32 lakhs.
2. Technical education received great impetus. A scheme of granting liberal interest-free educational loans was introduced and loans amounting to Rs. 279 lakhs were sanctioned. As a result of this policy a corps of technical personnel was created with an adequate know-how in medicine and surgery, agriculture and animal husbandry, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering and in postgraduate studies at all levels. The technical man-power available increased from 72 in 1953 to 4, 770 in 1962-63.
3. Per capita expenditure on public health rose from 47 np to Rs. 4.00. The number of dispensaries of all kinds increased from 217 to 374, health centres from zero to 55, hospitals from 10 to 19 and the number of hospital beds rose from 600 to over 3 thousand.
4. The system of forced levy of foodgrains known as Mujawaza was abolished.
5. Debts of the rural population were scaled down by more than 51 percent.
6. The colossal problem of rehabilitation was vigorously tackled and successfully solved. More than thirty thousand uprooted families from Pakistan-occupied areas were rehabilitated. For the rehabilitation of Muslim refugees from Pakistan-held areas a special grant of over Rs. 18 lakhs was provided.
7. With a view to enabling low and middle income group Government employees to build their own houses, plots of land were provided at concessional rates and loans amounting to Rs. 1.35 crores were granted.
8. The Jawahar Tunnel was constructed at a cost of over 3 crores of rupees and established a permanent road link between the valley and the rest of the Country and ensured a dependable flow of supplies and trade.
9. Transport facilities increased manifold. More than 7000 vehicles, both private and public were operating providing employment to about 20,000 persons directly and indirectly.
10. 34 fruit plant nurseries were set up and 12.27 lakh fruit plants distributed. Value of export of fresh and dry fruits increased manifold.
11. Good drinking water to the waterless tracts of the Jammu province was provided at a cost of Rs. 107.07 lakhs removing the age-old problem of over a lakh of people and several thousand animals.
12. 25,533 scholarships were granted to students belonging to scheduled castes and backward classes.
13. The power potential increased from 4,000 kws to 31,000 kws.
14. The Jammu and Kashmir Minerals Corporation with a capital of Rupees five crores was set up to exploit the mineral wealth of the State.
15. The First and Second Five year Plans were completed at a cost of Rs. 11.52 crores and 25.97 crores respectively. The Third Five Year Plan was of the order of Rs. 75 crores.
16. As many as 33,569 additional jobs were created during the first ten years.
17. Three general revisions of pay scales of Government employees were sanctioned involving an expenditure of over 3 crores of rupees. Pensioners getting pensions were granted D.A.
18. Per capita income of the State at 1955-56 prices rose from Rs. 188.41 to Rs. 236.86 between the years 1950-51 to 1958-59.
19. A democratic constitution was given to the State where-under a bicameral legislature with 75 members in the Lower House and 36 members in the Upper House was set up.
20. A Public Service Commission and an Academy of Arts, Culture and Languages with an autonomous status was set up.
Increase In Revenues And Expenditure.
Progress in revenues and expenditure from 1947-48 to 1962-63:-
Outlay on Various Development Activities
Head of development 1947-48 1963-64
Agriculture and Horticulture 2.23 Lakhs 88.21 Lakhs
Animal Husbandry 2.26 65.94
Community Development Nil 65.45
Panchayats and Cooperatives 3.75 25.52
Forest and Soil Conservation 20.18 104.67
Irrigation & Flood Control 3.23 245.11
Civil Works (Roads & Buildings) 27.09 504.80
Education (Excluding buildings) 33.68 327.38
Medical & Public Health 12.18 159.06
Industry 39.62 154.75
Power 7.53 422.86
A. Enrolment of school-going children in the
age group 6-11 64,000 2,34,000
Number of Primary Schools 1,239 4,078
Number of High & Higher Secondary Schools 72 246
B. Women's Education
Tremendous improvements took place in women's education.
The following figures bear this out :—
1953 54 1960-1961
No.of Institutions Students on Roll No.of Institutions Students on Roll
1. Primary 175 4,679 542 34,720
2. Middle 15 4,146 69 11.811
3. High Schools 9 5,243 38 15,061
4. Teachers Training
School — 38 2 155
5. Degree Colleges 2 382 2 1,559
Total 181 14,488 653 63,306
C. Technical Institutions
Institutions 1947 1963-64
D. Stadia 1947 1963-64
E. Regional Engineering College
In order to meet the growing demand of Engineers in the Country an Engineering College in the State
was set up in 1960 as a centrally sponsored scheme under the control of a governing board. This
college provided admission to 245 and 187 students during 1961-62 and 1962-63 respectively.
Institutions 1947-48 1963-64
Hospitals 2 19
Dispensaries 87 429
Bed Strength 600 3000 +
1946-47 Rs. 131 Lakhs
1952-53 Rs. 70.43 Lakhs
1956-57 Rs. 176 Lakhs
1961-62 Rs. 373.15 Lakhs (actuals)
1962-63 Rs. 436.50 Lakhs (R.E.)
1963-64 Rs. 500.00 Lakhs (B.E.)
The total mileage of roads including the high-way before the First Five Year Plan
Black Topped 283 miles
Metalled 146 miles
Shingled 174 miles
Fair weather 413 miles
Jeepable 145 miles
Total 1,161 miles
First Five Year Plan
New roads constructed 312 miles
Existing roads improved 565 miles
Second Five Year Plan
Roads constructed 1,862 miles
The position at the end of 1961-62 was as follows :
Surfaced roads 1,373
Un-surfaced road 2,920
Year Number of Tourists
The Industries (Development and Regulation) Act of the Government of India was extended to
the State of Jammu and Kashmir also to bring it within the ambit of the Industrial Policy
Resolution of the Centre.
The following Industrial Boards were set up represented by prominent industrialists of the
country and with the State Premier as Chairman.
1. Industrial Advisory Board, and
2. Industries Development Board.
As a result of the deliberations of the Boards, industrial development was envisaged in the
following directions :
a. Establishment of two Cotton Spinning Mills with initial installed capacity of 12,500 spindles each.
b. Establishment of a Worsted Yarn Spinning mill with initial installed capacity of 12,000 spindles,
rising to 60,000 spindles within two years.
c. Establishment of a factory for the manufacture of spun silk from silk wastes in the State
d. Establishment of a factory at Pampore for the manufacture of decorative veneers, plywood and
e. Manufacture of paper.
f. Manufacture of camphor and other allied products.
g. Renovation of existing Rosin and Turpentine factory at Miran Sahib.
h. Expansion of medicinal herb cultivations.
i. Manufacture of bricks at Pampore.
j. Manufacture of ceramics and sanitary ware at Kathua.
The number of factories in the State rose from 10 in 1947 to 154 in 1962.
MINING AND GEOLOGY
A Department of geology and Mining was established during the Second Plan period. For exploitation
of mineral resources in the State a public sector company known as the J & K Minerals was floated.
The company was mining :
(a) Coal in Kalakot,
(b) Lignite in Nichihama ,
(c) Gypsum in Buniyar, and
(d) Sapphire in Paddar.
The Jammu and Kashmir Minerals was also responsible for the following :
A. Generation of thermal power at Kalakot
B. Production of Cement at Wuyan, Pre-stressed cement concrete, Spun pipes
C. Formulation of projects for :
Manufacture of Fertilizers,
Cement (600 to 700 tons a day) in Jammu,
Establishment of a steel re-rolling mill at Wuyan, Pencil Slates, and
Generation of thermal power from Jangal-gali coal and Kalakot coal fields.
Installed capacity in 1947-48 4000 Kws.
Installed capacity in 1963-64 31,000 Kws.
Following were some of the main power projects, besides eight small ones, under construction :
a. Salal Project 45,000 Kws
b. Chenani Project 14,000 Kws
c. Nichihama Project 10 000 Kws
d. Kalakot Thermal Power House 22 500 Kws
Before the First Five Year Plan the position was as follows:
Net Area cropped 15.56 lakh acres
Net Area irrigated 6.55 lakh acres
Crops irrigated 7.05 lakh acres
During the first two Five Year Plans a total area of a little over 90,000 acres was brought under irrigation.
The position.of the Veterinary Hospitals etc was as follows
Hospitals 2 32
Dispensaries 3 88
First Aid Centres Nil 16
Key Village Centres Nil 5
Cattle Farm Nil 3
Poultry Farm Nil 10
Artificial Insemination Centres Nil 24
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND NATIONAL EXTENSION SERVICE
A. The Community Development and National Extension Services programme was started in 1953. There were 68 blocks covering the whole State.
The expenditure under Community Development and National Extension service rose from Rs. 2.03 lakhs in 1953-54 to Rs. 79.74 lakhs in 1961-62. The budget provision for 1963-64 was Rs. 65.45 lakhs.
An institution for training of Village Level Workers was also established.
B. Panchyats set up after 1958.
Panches elected 7,742
Quantity of fertilizers supplied 3,04,679 mds
Quantity of imported seeds of wheat paddy and maijze supplied 1,25,990 mds
Number of seed multiplication Farms set up. 42
C. In view of its Special needs water logged and backward area of Sonawari was constituted into a separate Tehsil and a Development Block. The outlay incurred on the development in this Block is indicated below :—
1960-61 rs. 16.31 lakhs
1961-62 rs. 9.30 lakhs
1962-63 rs. 3.60 lakhs
WORK DONE BY SERVICE CO-OPERATIVES DURING SECOND PLAN PERIOD
Number of Service Cooperatives set up 736
Loans advanced Rs. 1,07,96000,
Value of Fertilizers and seeds distributed Rs. 7,28,000
Value of Consumer goods distributed Rs. 89,95,000
Value of Agricultural produce delivered for marketing by members Rs. 89,91,000
Owing to the paucity of accommodation in the existing Secretariat building, two new Secretariat buildings one each at Jammu and Srinagar were constructed. The construction of Jammu Secretariat building was completed in December, 1961 at a total cost of Rs. 31.80 Lakhs. The Srinagar Secretariat building was completed in a record time of 25 months with an expenditure of about Rs. 53 lakhs.,
These Secretariats have provided sufficient office accommodation to the Secretariat offices.
Ladakh which was the most backward area of the state received due emphasis. This area was linked by a motorable road with the rest of the country. The following figures of expenditure incurred will give an idea of the progress made in this area.
1960-61 Rs. 63.83 Lakhs.
1961-62 Rs. 4401 Lakhs
1962.63 Rs. 57.60 Lakhs
1963-64 Rs. 94.82 Lakhs
The Outlay mentioned above was incurred on all types of activities including social services. In this sphere particularly there was tremendous progress during this period. The number of educational institutions increased three times and enrolment by more than four times.