the kashmir network


Burzahom was the first Neolithic site to be discovered in Kashmir. It is located on a 'karewa' between the banks of the Dal Lake and the Zabarvan hills, about 5 km from the famous Mughal garden of Shalimar. After the discovery and excavation of Burzahom, other Neolithic sites were discovered in Kashmir at places such as Begagund, Brah, Gofkral, Hariparigom, Jayadevi-udar, Olichibag, Pampur, Panzogom, Sombur, Thajiwor and Waztal, all located on karewas mainly in the south-east parts of the Kashmir valley.

Burzahom translates as 'place [hom] of  birch [burza]' in Kashmiri. Burnt birch found in the excavations showed that  birch trees must have been common in the area in the Stone Age. Plentiful food from the forests on the Himalayan foothills, an abundant water supply from the lake, and a raised location protected from seasonal inundation ensured that the Burzahom plateau remained continuously settled from the New Stone Age to the Early Historical period.

Burzahom is the most famous archaeological Site in Kashmir.


Neolithic [New Stone Age] Phase I c.3000 B.C.

The earliest Neolithic homes at Burzahom were pits dug below ground level using stone tools. The sides of the pits were plastered with mud. These pits must have provided the early Neolithic people of Burzahom protection from the elements during bitter winters in Kashmir .The pits were usually round or oval, and narrow at the top and wide at the base. Holes discovered around the pits were probably used to fix wooden poles to give support to roofs made out of tree branches. Some of the deeper pits had a few steps leading down while the pit-dwellers people would have stepped down into the shallower ones.

The early Neolithic people of Burzahom made simple gray or reddish-brown hand-made pots in different shapes and sizes.  They also made polished stone tools and tools out of animal bones and antlers. The bone tools included harpoons for fishing, needles for sewing, and arrow-heads, spear-heads and daggers for hunting. Ash, charcoal and pieces of pottery were found in the pits. Some of the pits had stone or clay ovens and a grinding-stone was found in one pit. The early phase I of the Neolithic at Burzahom did not yield any burial sites.

Neolithic Phase II c.2000 B.C.

During this phase, the Neolithic people of Burzahom started to live in mud huts at ground level. The pits were filled up and plastered with mud and sometimes covered with a thin coat of red ochre to serve as a floor. Stone and bone tools with a better finish compared to the earlier ones were discovered. The pottery was generally hand-made shiny black pottery. A red wheel-made pot filled with 950 beautiful beads made of semi-precious stones was discovered at the site.

Many burials of this phase were discovered, usually under house floors or in the compounds. Red ochre was smeared on the bodies before burial. Apart from human burials, animals were sometimes buried along with humans or in separate graves. The buried animals included wild animals like wolves, ibex and antlered deer and domesticated animals like dogs, sheep and goats.

Scientists have identified seeds of wild and cultivated types of wheat, barley and lentils of different kinds found at Neolithic levels of Burzahom.

Megalithic Phase III

The Megalithic period is associated with the setting up of menhirs or single standing stones, which can still be seen in Burzahom. The pottery was fine-to-medium red-ware mostly made on the potter's wheel. Bone and stone tools were gradually discarded in favour of copper tools. Rubble structures of this Period have also been found.

Early Historical Phase IV

Mud-brick structures at the site reveal that the site was occupied up to the early historical period. The pottery was fine-to-medium red-ware mostly made on the potter's wheel. Iron objects have been found belonging to this period.


Unique Features

The discovery of tools made out of animal bones and antlers, and animal burials are unique features of the Neolithic culture of Burzahom and are not found at Neolithic sites in other parts of India. 


Oldest Sky-Chart?

An interesting Phase II discovery was a carved stone slab that shows two hunters hunting a stag while twin suns shine in the sky. The engraving on the slab depicts hunting scenes showing an antlered deer being pierced from behind with a long spear by a hunter and an arrow being discharged by another hunter from the front. The slab seems to reveal that hunting was still a part of the life of the Neolithic people of Burzahom.

The presence of two similar suns in the sky is however a mystery. Some researchers believe that the twin suns indicate the duration of the hunt, while a far more exotic theory has been proposed by a team of astronomers who believe that the scene represents the ancient night sky with the two suns actually representing the moon and a supernova*, while the hunters and the animals represent constellations like Orion and Taurus. If the latter theory is to be believed, it would represent not only the first record of a supernova, but also the oldest sky-chart ever discovered.
* A supernova is the explosion of a massive star which produces an extremely bright object that gradually fades away over weeks or months.

Ancient surgery?

Scientists have found evidence of multiple trepanation or drilling through the skull of a woman found buried in the Neolithic Phase II complex. There are six completed perforations resulting from eleven attempts over at least four successive sittings with the woman either living or recently deceased. Some scientists believe that the trepanation was done with the sole purpose of taking out round skull pieces for ritual offerings or magico-religious practices, while others insist that it was a clear case of surgery performed for predominantly medical reasons on the woman while she was still alive.

Trepanation as a surgical operation was widely established in many ancient societies of the Americas, Europe, Africa and Asia - from Peru in antiquity to Harappa (c. 4300 BC)  in the Indus Valley, the Bronze Age of Jericho in Palestine (c. 4000 B.C) and Europe around 5000 B.C.  Scientists have commented on the similarity in the techniques of prehistoric trepanation,  ostensibly due to the transfer of surgical skills from one society to another, and the implication this transfer would have on the possibility of the prehistoric movements of people across continents. The skull of the Burzahom woman may be one more thread in the riddle of remarkably similar techniques of  trepanation used by prehistoric societies separated by vast expanses of  space and time.
References/Further Reading


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